MatrixSSL is an embedded SSL and TLS implementation designed for small footprint devices and applications requiring low overhead per connection. The library is less than 50K on disk with cipher suites. It includes SSL and TLS client and server support, session resumption, and implementations of RSA, AES, 3DES, ARC4, SHA1, and MD5. The source is well documented and contains portability layers for additional operating systems, cipher suites, and cryptography providers.
A reasonable way to achieve a long term backup of OpenPGP (GnuPG, PGP, etc) keys is to print them out on paper. Due to metadata and redundancy, OpenPGP secret keys are significantly larger than just the "secret bits". In fact, the secret key contains a complete copy of the public key. Since the public key generally doesn't need to be backed up in this way (most people have many copies of it on various keyservers, Web pages, etc), only extracting the secret parts can be a real advantage. Paperkey extracts just those secret bytes and prints them. To reconstruct, you re-enter those bytes (whether by hand or via OCR), and paperkey can use them to transform your existing public key into a secret key.
PolarSSL is a light-weight cryptographic and SSL/TLS library written in C. PolarSSL makes it easy for developers to include cryptographic and SSL/TLS capabilities in their (embedded) applications with as little hassle as possible. Loose coupling of the components inside the library means that it is easy to separate the parts that are needed, without needing to include the total library. PolarSSL is written with embedded systems in mind and has been ported on a number of architectures, including ARM, PowerPC, MIPS, and Motorola 68000. The source is written to have very loose coupling, enabling easy integration of parts in other software projects. Very loosely coupled cryptographic algorithms for MD2, MD4, MD5, SHA1, SHA-256, SHA-512, AES, Camellia, DES, Triple DES, ARC3, and RSA are included.
ACL2 is a mathematical logic, programming language, and mechanical theorem prover based on the applicative subset of Common Lisp. It is an "industrial-strength" version of the NQTHM or Boyer/Moore theorem prover, and has been used for the formal verification of commercial microprocessors, the Java Virtual Machine, interesting algorithms, and so forth.
The Cryptographic Implementations Analysis Toolkit (CIAT) is a compendium of command line and graphical tools whose aim is to help in the detection and analysis of encrypted byte sequences within files (executable and non-executable). It is particularly helpful in the forensic analysis and reverse engineering of malware using cryptographic code and encrypted payloads.
MUTE File Sharing is an anonymous, decentralized search-and-download file sharing system. Several people have described MUTE as the "third generation file sharing network" (From Napster to Gnutella to MUTE, with each generation getting less centralized and more anonymous). MUTE uses algorithms inspired by ant behavior to route all messages, include file transfers, through a mesh network of neighbor connections.