Asymptote is a powerful descriptive 2D and 3D vector graphics language for technical drawing, inspired by MetaPost but with an improved C++-like syntax. It provides for figures the same high-quality level of typesetting that LaTeX does for scientific text. Asymptote is a programming language as opposed to just a graphics program. It can exploit the best features of script (command-driven) and graphical user interface (GUI) methods. High-level graphics commands are implemented in the language itself, allowing them to be easily tailored to specific applications.
GIMP is the GNU Image Manipulation Program. It is a freely distributed piece of software suitable for such tasks as photo retouching, image composition and image authoring. It can be used as a simple paint program, an expert quality photo retouching program, an online batch processing system, a mass production image renderer, a image format converter, etc.
album is a free HTML/XHTML photo album and gallery generator that supports themes/skins. You can choose different themes or write your own to get different layouts and styles. It creates all your thumbnails (including directory thumbnails) and descends into directories so you can organize your photos. See the home page for more examples. album is also multi-lingual, with many languages being added all the time. N.B.: The purchase link is provided for donations; the software does not cost anything.
Ghostscript is a processor for PostScript and PDF files. It can rasterize these files to a wide variety of printers, devices for screen preview, and image file formats. Since applications tend to prepare pages for printing in a high-level format such as PostScript, most Unix users with low-level bitmap printers, such as inkjets, use GhostScript as part of the printing process. In addition, Ghostscript is capable of converting PostScript files, functionality comparable to Adobe Acrobat Distiller, but on the command line. In addition, Ghostscript is used for file import and viewing by a great many other applications, including xv, ImageMagick, gimp, and xdvi. Several GUI wrappers for viewing PostScript and PDF files exist, including GSview, ghostview, gv, ggv, and kghostview. This is far from a comprehensive list.
JGraph is a free, mature, and robust Java diagramming library. It contains all the graph visualization, layout, and interaction functionality you might expect in a graph library, including multiple views, layering, zoom, drag and drop, undo, automatic expanding and collapsing, routing, and layouts. You can create workflow editors, BPMN, CAD tools, network diagrams, database visualization tools, and more. It is fully documented, including examples, and has an active support community.
Inkscape is a drawing tool with capabilities similar to Illustrator, Freehand, and CorelDraw that uses the W3C standard scalable vector graphics format (SVG). The supported SVG features include basic shapes, paths, text, markers, clones, alpha blending, transforms, gradients, and grouping. In addition, it supports Creative Commons meta-data, node-editing, layers, complex path operations, text-on-path, and SVG XML editing. It also imports several formats like EPS, Postscript, JPEG, PNG, BMP, and TIFF and exports PNG as well as multiple vector-based formats.
pHash is an implementation of various perceptual hashing algorithms. A perceptual hash is a fingerprint of a multimedia file derived from various features from its content. Unlike cryptographic hash functions that rely on the avalanche effect of small changes in input leading to drastic changes in the output, perceptual hashes are "close" to one another if the features are similar. Potential applications include copyright protection, similarity searches for media files, or even digital forensics.