Yate is a next-generation telephony engine. While currently focused on Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) and PSTN, its power lies in its ability to be easily extended. It supports SIP, H.323, IAX, MGCP, Jingle, Jabber, E1, T1, analogic, robbed bit, ISDN PRI, BRI, and SS7. YateClient is an Instant Messenger and Voice application for Jabber/Jingle IM, SIP, H.323, and IAX VoIP protocols.
Asterisk is a hybrid TDM and packet voice PBX (Private Branch eXchange) and IVR platform with ACD functionality. It acts as middleware between the Internet (IAX, SIP, MGCP, Skinny, H.323), telephony channels (like Zaptel, T1, PRI, E1, FXO, FXS, VoIP, VoFR, ISDN, modems, Internet Phone Jack, etc.), and applications (like voice-mail, conferencing, directories, MP3 players, intercoms, etc.). It has many advanced features such as a codec translation API. The base distribution includes several channel backends, as well as applications. However, the beauty of Asterisk is its ability to be extended using its APIs, dynamic module loader, and AGI scripting interface. End users can even write their own applications that run on the system in C or any scripting language of their choice.
Linphone is an audio and video Internet phone with GTK+ and console interfaces. It uses the SIP protocol, and is compatible with most SIP clients and gateways. It can use various audio and video codecs such as Speex, GSM, G711, G722, ilbc, amr, Theora, H263-1998, MPEG4, H264, VP8, and snow.
Ekiga (formely known as GnomeMeeting) is a soft phone, video conferencing, and instant messenger application for use over the Internet. It supports HD sound quality and video up to DVD size and quality. It is interoperable with many other standards compliant software, hardware, and service providers as it uses both of the major telephony standards, SIP and H.323.
Skype uses P2P (peer-to-peer) technology to provide voice- and video-based communication with other Internet users. The technology is extremely advanced, but easy to use. It features excellent sound quality, end-to-end encryption, and automatic negotiation of firewalls or routers. Among major features are SkypeOut and SkypeIn, adding the possibility to make low-cost calls to land line phones and having a fixed number to be able to receive calls from land line phones.
Bayonne is the telephony server of the GNU project. It offers a script-driven threaded multi-line state event telephony service on GNU/Linux, xBSD, and Microsoft Windows for building voice response systems, and uses telephony plugins for runtime driver configuration. It also features "TGI" for making Perl applications "telephony aware". It may be used to build telephony-based system administration, home automation, automated attendant, v-commerce, and voice messaging systems.
Elastix is a software appliance that integrates the best tools available for Asterisk-based PBXs into a single, easy-to-use interface. It also adds its own set of utilities and allows for the creation of third party modules. The goals of Elastix are reliability, modularity, and ease-of-use. It also features strong reporting capabilities.
Speex is a patent-free compression format designed especially for speech. It is specialized for voice communications at low bit-rates in the 2-45 kbps range. Possible applications include Voice over IP (VoIP), Internet audio streaming, audio books, and archiving of speech data (e.g. voice mail).