TwistedWave is a very easy-to-use and powerful audio editor. It supports Audio Unit plug-ins and many file formats, including wav, aiff, caf, mp3, mp4, FLAC, and Ogg Vorbis. It has good multichannel support, so you can apply Audio Units to a selection of channels. It supports unlimited undo and redo, which work instantly. Zooming in and moving around the waveform is very fast, even with very large files. All the effects are applied in the background, saving a lot of time.
sr-convert is a sample-rate conversion utility for WAV files. It supports a wide variety of sampling rates and can convert from any of the supported rates to any other. It runs under either x86 Linux or Windows and uses SSE instructions if they are available. Great pains have been taken to make sure that the sound quality of the conversion is excellent.
Scheme Note is a Scheme-like music file format and MIDI conversion tool. It takes a text file, which is a representation of a song, loosely tied to a MIDI-like event structure, and outputs a corresponding MIDI file. It is hand-editable for simple songs, and should be very easy to parse for a GUI.
jMax is a visual programming environment for building interactive real-time musical and multimedia applications by allowing the user to interactively design dataflow circuits. The basic data types that can go through are integers, symbols, lists, etc. It is an event-driven system and has been used for MIDI processing. A second part of the system (DSP) allows a continuous signal to flow through a circuit, which is most useful for PCM sound (ie. microphone, sound files, etc.). The system is extensible by using shared libraries, you may add data processor types, data types, GUI elements, device types, and more. Data processors may also be designed as circuits and reused.
GLAME (GNU/Linux Audio Mechanics) is meant to be the GIMP of audio processing. It is designed to be a powerful, fast, stable, and easily extensible sound editor for Linux and compatible systems. It has full support for non-destructive editing including undo/redo and applying LADSPA effects. Its supported platforms are Linux, BSD, IRIX, and OS X. It uses guile and libxml, and the GNOME libs available is highly recommended. MP3 and Ogg files can be processed if libmad and libvorbisfile are installed.
Beast is a powerful music composition and modular synthesis application. It offers multiple input methods like multitrack, piano roll, and pattern editing and supports skins. On the technical side, it has a wide range of abilities like sequencing, unlimited undo/redo history, real-time synthesis with multiprocessor support, full duplex 32-bit audio rendering, precise timing down to sample granularity, on demand loading of partial wave files, on the fly decoding of various sample formats, aliasing free oscillators, and full Scheme scripting support.