distributed.net is a loosely knit group of computer users from all of the world that is taking up challenges requiring lots of computing power (most notably the RC5, DES, and OGR cracking contests). It is simple to participate in the challenges by downloading and running their client software (which uses idle CPU time to complete its tasks).
KVEC is a command line tool that allows you to convert raster graphics to vector graphics. KVEC is designed for 32 bit operating systems and runs on Win32, OS/2, HP-UX, NEXTSTEP, Linux, IRIX, AIX 4.x, Macintosh and BeOS. Docs are available in English and German. The shareware version is available for 30 day trial.
Yacas is a general purpose, easy to use Computer Algebra System (a CAS is a program that can be used to do symbolic manipulation of mathematical expressions). It is built on top of its own programming language designed for this purpose, in which new algorithms can easily be implemented. In addition, it comes with extensive documentation on the functionality implemented and methods used to implement them.
The ATLAS (Automatically Tuned Linear Algebra Software) project is an ongoing research effort focusing on applying empirical techniques in order to provide portable performance. It provides C and Fortran77 interfaces to a portably efficient BLAS implementation, as well as a few routines from LAPACK.
HPC Challenge is a collection of benchmarks for measuring various aspects of system performance, such as flop/s, sustainable memory bandwidth, memory read/write rates, network bandwidth, and latency for parallel machines. It is designed for supercomputers, but will run on any computer with MPI-1 (Message Passing Interface) implementation and BLAS (Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms).