GLAME (GNU/Linux Audio Mechanics) is meant to be the GIMP of audio processing. It is designed to be a powerful, fast, stable, and easily extensible sound editor for Linux and compatible systems. It has full support for non-destructive editing including undo/redo and applying LADSPA effects. Its supported platforms are Linux, BSD, IRIX, and OS X. It uses guile and libxml, and the GNOME libs available is highly recommended. MP3 and Ogg files can be processed if libmad and libvorbisfile are installed.
jMax is a visual programming environment for building interactive real-time musical and multimedia applications by allowing the user to interactively design dataflow circuits. The basic data types that can go through are integers, symbols, lists, etc. It is an event-driven system and has been used for MIDI processing. A second part of the system (DSP) allows a continuous signal to flow through a circuit, which is most useful for PCM sound (ie. microphone, sound files, etc.). The system is extensible by using shared libraries, you may add data processor types, data types, GUI elements, device types, and more. Data processors may also be designed as circuits and reused.
VRR is a vector image editor designed especially (but not only) for making illustrations of mathematical articles. Its main features are many types of geometric objects and keeping of their dependencies, cooperation with TeX, scripting in Scheme, real-size dimensions, support for a wide range of file formats (including PS, EPS, PDF, and SVG).
TwistedWave is a very easy-to-use and powerful audio editor. It supports Audio Unit plug-ins and many file formats, including wav, aiff, caf, mp3, mp4, FLAC, and Ogg Vorbis. It has good multichannel support, so you can apply Audio Units to a selection of channels. It supports unlimited undo and redo, which work instantly. Zooming in and moving around the waveform is very fast, even with very large files. All the effects are applied in the background, saving a lot of time.