KNOPPIX is a bootable CD with a collection of GNU/Linux software, automatic hardware detection, and support for many graphics cards, sound cards, SCSI devices, and other peripherals. It can be used as a Linux demo, educational CD, rescue system, etc. It is not necessary to install anything on a hard disk due to on-the-fly decompression.
Goodgoat Linux is a simple to use Linux distribution that can be run from a USB drive, hard drive, or CD-ROM. Rather than overwhelming users with a multitude of applications, it aims to have the best utility for each job. In addition to including the latest software, it makes it easy to share a computer's hard drive over a network.
iloog is a Gentoo-based live CD targeted mainly at students and scientists. It features UnionFS filesystem support that enables you to write everywhere on the LiveCD and install extra packages, a graphical X environment through the Fluxbox window manager, many programming editors and IDEs, and a plethora of scientific applications, including Octave, Namd, Merlin, and full (La)TeX support.