Evolvotron is an interactive "generative art" application to evolve images/textures/patterns through an iterative process of random mutation and user-selection driven evolution. If you like lava lamps, and never got tired of the Mandelbrot set, this could be the software for you. It's implemented using Qt, and is multithreaded.
F-Spot is a personal photo management application for the GNOME desktop. It simplifies digital photography by providing intuitive tools to help you share, touch-up, find, and organize your images. These tools include editing, color adjustments, tags, Photo CD creation, and exporting for upload.
Grafx2 is a bitmap paint program that allows you to draw in more than 60 video resolutions (from 320x200 to 1024x768, including most of the standard Amiga resolutions: 320x256, 320x512, 640x256, 640x512, and more, provided your video card knows how to handle them). Its layout is not very different from the famous Deluxe Paint or Brilliance, so it will be quite easy to handle it if you know at least one of these programs.
Arachne is program that implements Avidan and Shamir's seam carving technique for content-aware image resizing. It allows realtime, fluid image resizing using this fascinating technique. Seam carving works by removing the "boring bits" from an image, so it can change the aspect ratio of many images without changing the shape of the objects inside.
Flowpaint is a next generation paint program that focuses on usability and power. It's cross platform and supports pressure sensitive graphics tablets. Planned features for future versions include user-editable procedural brushes, brushes created from pictures, layers with arbitrary data channels, infinite and wrapping canvas layouts, parametrized picture templates, and built-in support for downloading and sharing new brushes and templates.
Image matting tool cuts out objects in photos using an alpha-matting technique. While clear cuts can be found for all objects that are clearly separated from their environment, objects with fuzzy borders and semi-transparent areas don't have a clear outline. The tool creates an alpha channel that defines the degree to which the background shines through the foreground for every pixel. The background color can then be subtracted. The user defines a rough boundary of an object with a large brush and a high-quality segmentation is generated. Problematic areas can be edited manually.