Evolvotron is an interactive "generative art" application to evolve images/textures/patterns through an iterative process of random mutation and user-selection driven evolution. If you like lava lamps, and never got tired of the Mandelbrot set, this could be the software for you. It's implemented using Qt, and is multithreaded.
SIP provides image processing, pattern recognition, and computer vision routines for SciLab, a Matlab-like matrix-oriented programming environment. SIP is able to read/write images in almost 90 major formats, including JPEG, PNG, BMP, GIF, FITS, and TIFF. It includes routines for filtering, segmentation, edge detection, morphology, curvature, fractal dimension, distance transforms, multiscale skeletons, and more.
Raster3D is a set of powerful tools for generating high quality raster images of proteins or other molecules. The core program renders spheres, triangles, cylinders, and quadric surfaces with specular highlighting, Phong shading, and shadowing. It uses an efficient software Z-buffer algorithm that is independent of any graphics hardware.
Seg3D is a volume editing and processing tool that combines a flexible manual segmentation interface with powerful higher-dimensional image processing and segmentation algorithms from the Insight Toolkit. DICOM, VFF, META, NRRD, and many other volume formats are supported. Users can explore and label image volumes using configurable, orthogonal slice view windows and 3D volume rendering.
SAGA GIS (System for Automated Geo-scientific Analysis) is a geographical information system (GIS). The SAGA GIS API supports grid data like digital terrain models and satellite images, vector data, and tables. This API makes it easy to implement new algorithms and exempts the developer from hassle programming overhead like user-interface design or file I/O. SAGA GIS comes with a large collection of modules, in areas of terrain-analysis, geo-statistics, image processing, and process simulation.
FrAid (Fr[actal] Aid) is a programming language that is appropriate for mathematical computations, visualization, batch processing, and more. It features both a standalone application that provides a programming environment for the language and a system for integrating the language with Java. The Java interface allows mathematical equations and formulas to be used with Java code, making it easier to process numerical computations, symbolic computations, imaging, CAD, and more.
MapMemo allows you to drag your files onto any graphic (map, photo, scan, illustration, screenshot, etc.), and thus give them a visual, location-based relation. It uses only aliases of your files which, when you click on an appropriate location, will open in their original application. You can use layers, info windows, colors, and comment fields to organize your files on the map.
SImg is a software for astronomical image processing. It contains a tool for visualization of highly dynamic images. The package consists of a library and applications which use it. Some of the features are deconvolution (various methods), Video4Linux support, PSF computation, approximation by linear combination of images and polynoms, various color transforms, automatic shifting of image sets (for addition and color composition), and more.