GIMP is the GNU Image Manipulation Program. It is a freely distributed piece of software suitable for such tasks as photo retouching, image composition and image authoring. It can be used as a simple paint program, an expert quality photo retouching program, an online batch processing system, a mass production image renderer, a image format converter, etc.
GraphicsMagick is a robust collection of tools and libraries which support reading, writing, and manipulating an image in over 90 major formats including popular formats like DPX, DICOM, BMP, GIF, JPEG, JPEG-2000, PDF, PNG, PNM, SVG, and TIFF. A high-quality 2D renderer is included, which provides a subset of SVG capabilities. C, C++, Perl, Tcl, and Ruby are supported. Originally based on ImageMagick, GraphicsMagick focuses on performance, minimizing bugs, and providing stable APIs and ABIs. It runs on all modern variants of Unix, Windows, and Mac OS X.
SIP provides image processing, pattern recognition, and computer vision routines for SciLab, a Matlab-like matrix-oriented programming environment. SIP is able to read/write images in almost 90 major formats, including JPEG, PNG, BMP, GIF, FITS, and TIFF. It includes routines for filtering, segmentation, edge detection, morphology, curvature, fractal dimension, distance transforms, multiscale skeletons, and more.
XPaint is an easy-to-use image editor which supports many standard and less standard paint procedures that demanding non-professional users would expect. It includes several advanced features like image processing algorithms, programmable C scripts, simultaneous editing of multiple images, and supports a wide variety of image formats.
mtPaint is a simple GTK+1/2 painting program designed for creating icons and pixel-based artwork. It can edit indexed palette or 24 bit RGB images and offers basic painting and palette manipulation tools. Its main file format is PNG, although it can also handle JPEG, GIF, TIFF, BMP, TGA, XPM, and XBM files.
Gimp User Filter is a work-alike to Adobe's Filter Factory. It is a generic image processing plug-in that can be used to create new filters for The GIMP without having to go through the process of learning about The GIMP's SDK. Many freely available filters that have been created for Filter Factory can also be used with this plug-in.
Allegro Sprite Editor (ASE) is a program specially designed with facilities to create animated sprites that can be used in some video game. It lets you create static images, characters with movement, textures, patterns, backgrounds, logos, color palettes, etc. It focuses on pixel editing to do pixel art. It isn't a photo retouching tool or a vector graphics editor. Mainly, it is a tool to create tiny animations pixel-by-pixel.
Arachne is program that implements Avidan and Shamir's seam carving technique for content-aware image resizing. It allows realtime, fluid image resizing using this fascinating technique. Seam carving works by removing the "boring bits" from an image, so it can change the aspect ratio of many images without changing the shape of the objects inside.