jHepWork (jWork) is an environment for scientific computation, data analysis, and data visualization for scientists, engineers, and students. The program is fully multi-platform (written in Java). Programs can be written in the Java, Jython/Python, and BeanShell scripting languages. Matlab/Octave is supported for symbolic calculations. The program can be used to display data and functions in D and 3D. It comes with a friendly IDE and a code assist.
iloog is a Gentoo-based live CD targeted mainly at students and scientists. It features UnionFS filesystem support that enables you to write everywhere on the LiveCD and install extra packages, a graphical X environment through the Fluxbox window manager, many programming editors and IDEs, and a plethora of scientific applications, including Octave, Namd, Merlin, and full (La)TeX support.