Graft provides a mechanism for managing multiple packages under a single directory hierarchy. It was inspired by both Depot (from Carnegie Mellon University) and Stow (by Bob Glickstein). Packages are installed in self-contained directory trees and symbolic links from a common area are made to the package files.
makeself is a small shell script that generates a self-extractable compressed TAR archive from a directory. The resulting file appears as a shell script, and can be launched as is. The archive will then uncompress itself to a temporary directory and an arbitrary command will be executed (for example, an installation script). This is pretty similar to archives generated with WinZip Self-Extractor in the Windows world.
Payload Delivery Vehicle (PDV) is a program that builds an executable that contains a complete package (e.g. and RPM, System V package or tar file) and the commands required to install it. When the executable is run it will extract the payload (the package) and then execute another command (such as rpm -i, pkgadd -d etc.). The big advantage to this is that a developer can hand a user a single file to be executed - the end user does not need to know how to extract the package or get it installed.