eCos (Embedded Configurable OS) is an open source, configurable, portable, and royalty-free embedded Real Time Operating System. It is written in C++, provides all the usual OS things. You configure the OS so that the parts you don't need aren't loaded to the embedded system. eCos is released under a modified GPL that allows for its use in embedded systems without having to GPL the embedded application.
JBoss is an Open Source, standards-compliant, Enterprise JavaBeans application server implemented in pure Java. JBoss provides JBossServer, the basic EJB container and JMX infrastructure, JBossMQ for JMS messaging, JBossMail for mail, JBossTX for JTA/JTS transactions, JBossSX for JAAS based security, JBossCX for JCA connectivity, and JBossCMP for CMP persistence. It integrates with Tomcat Servlet/JSP container and Jetty Web server/servlet container, and enables you to mix and match these components through JMX by replacing any component you wish with a JMX-compliant implementation for the same APIs. The goal is to provide a full J2EE stack in the Free/Open Source software world.
NetBSD is a free, secure, and highly portable Unix-like operating system available for many platforms, from large-scale server systems to powerful desktop systems to handheld and embedded devices. Its clean design and advanced features make it excellent in both production and research environments, and the source code is freely available under a business-friendly license. NetBSD is developed and supported by a large and vivid international community. Many applications are easily available through pkgsrc, the NetBSD Packages Collection.
ReactOS is an advanced operating system providing a ground-up implementation of a Microsoft Windows XP/Windows Server 2003-compatible operating system. It aims to achieve complete binary compatibility with both applications and device drivers meant for XP and NT 5.2 operating systems by using a similar architecture and providing a complete and equivalent public interface. Written completely from scratch, ReactOS is not a Linux based system, and shares none of the UNIX architecture.
Thix is an almost complete implementation of the POSIX.1 standard (IEEE Std 1003.1-1988). It is a UNIX-like kernel with many features real operating systems have: virtual memory, demand paging, protection, swapping, etc. The Thix Operating System is fully functional at this time, and many free software packages have been succesfully compiled/run under it, including development tools such as the GNU C/C++ Compiler suite. However, there is no networking support and the only drivers available are for floppy disks, (E)IDE hard disks, printers, virtual terminals, mem, kmem and null.
Visopsys is an alternative operating system for PC compatible computers. Under development since late 1997, this system is small, fast, and open source. It features a simple but functional graphical interface, real preemptive multitasking, and virtual memory. Though it attempts to be compatible in a number of ways, Visopsys is not a clone of any other operating system. You can demo the distribution from a "live" CD, USB stick, or floppy disk.