Linux is a clone of the Unix kernel, written from scratch by Linus Torvalds with assistance from a loosely-knit team of hackers across the Net. It aims towards POSIX and Single UNIX Specification compliance. It has all the features you would expect in a modern fully-fledged Unix kernel, including true multitasking, virtual memory, shared libraries, demand loading, shared copy-on-write executables, proper memory management, and TCP/IP networking.
The Advanced Linux Sound Architecture is composed of several parts. The first is a fully modularized sound driver which supports module autoloading, devfs, isapnp autoconfiguration, and gives complete access to analog audio, digital audio, control, mixer, synthesizer, DSP, MIDI, and timer components of audio hardware. It also includes a fully-featured kernel-level sequencer, a full compatibility layer for OSS/Free applications, an object-oriented C library which covers and enhances the ALSA kernel driver functionality for applications (client/server, plugins, PCM sharing/multiplexing, PCM metering, etc.), an interactive configuration program for the driver, and some simple utilities for basic management.
Kernel Mode Linux is a technology which enables the execution of user programs in a kernel mode. In Kernel Mode Linux, user programs can access kernel address space directly. Unlike kernel modules, user programs are executed as ordinary processes (except for their privilege level), so scheduling and paging are performed as usual. Although it seems dangerous, the safety of the kernel can be ensured through such methods as static type checking, software fault isolation, and so forth.
GeeXboX is a standalone media player Linux distribution, similar to MoviX. It's a small bootable CD that allows you to play your favorite video (DivX, XviD, H.264, MPEG 1/2, VCD, DVD, OggMedia, Windows Media, RealMedia, etc.) and audio (MP3, Audio CD, Ogg Vorbis, FLAC, MPC, etc.) files. It also supports networking, and is able to play media from Windows/Samba share, NFS, UPnP A/V Media Servers, RTP/RTSP servers, or SHOUTcast. It supports TV-out, TV tuners, DVB cards, and WiFi cards. It is based on MPlayer, and can be used on any x86, x86_64, or PowerPC computer. It's easy to modify the source to build your own GeeXboX or use an alternative boot method.
NASLite is a Network Attached Storage (NAS) server operating system designed to transform a basic computer into a dedicated file server. Utilizing highly optimized versions of Samba, uCLibc, BusyBox, and various other Linux tools, it provides SMB/CIFS, FTP, or NFS filesystem support. It accommodates multiple client OSes: Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux. NASLite offers SMART disk monitoring and large file support, and is incredibly easy to install and administer.
Linux NTFS provides Linux kernel drivers, a multiplatform NTFS library, and tools to create, resize, clone, rescue, query, label and fix NTFS volumes, and to undelete, resize, list, and query files for the filesystem used by Windows XP, 2003, 2000, NT4, and Vista. It also provides support for the Logical Disk Manager (LDM) that controls Windows' Dynamic Disks and is used to create software mirrors, stripes, and RAID.
JBoss is an Open Source, standards-compliant, Enterprise JavaBeans application server implemented in pure Java. JBoss provides JBossServer, the basic EJB container and JMX infrastructure, JBossMQ for JMS messaging, JBossMail for mail, JBossTX for JTA/JTS transactions, JBossSX for JAAS based security, JBossCX for JCA connectivity, and JBossCMP for CMP persistence. It integrates with Tomcat Servlet/JSP container and Jetty Web server/servlet container, and enables you to mix and match these components through JMX by replacing any component you wish with a JMX-compliant implementation for the same APIs. The goal is to provide a full J2EE stack in the Free/Open Source software world.
L7-filter is a packet classifier for Netfilter that identifies packets based on application layer (OSI layer 7) data. This means that it is able to classify packets as HTTP, FTP, Gnucleus, Kazaa, etc., regardless of ports. It complements existing matches that classify based on port numbers, packet length, TOS bits, and so on. Combined with Linux QoS, it allows for full layer 7 packet shaping.