E-Cell System is an object-oriented software suite for modelling, simulation, and analysis of large scale complex systems such as biological cells. It allows many components, driven by multiple algorithms with different timescales, to coexist. The core library is written in C++ with a Python binding, and frontend software uses Python.
libphidgets is a user-space access library for the Phidget devices. It provides a generic and flexible way to access and interact with the Phidgets, and comes with all the advantages of a user-space library. It is based on libhid (which is based on libusb), thus it requires no HID support in the kernel. Furthermore, it aims to support all operating system supported by libusb/libhid: Linux, BSD, OS X, and Windows.
PSIworld (Programmable Scalable Interactive World) is a framework that provides a set of libraries, utilities, and applications to ease the implementation of dynamic artificial intelligence environments. Specifically, the development of multi-agent applications is targeted. It is designed in a generic manner so that various kinds of applications can use it. This framework not only includes pure algorithm libraries for AI computation tasks, but also a C/C++ library for distributed computation. A server-client model also involves various, concurrent visualization methods of distinct Agents or Societies.
ASpiReNN is a little C library (with Python bindings) which provides support for simple (leaky integrate-and-fire) spiking neural networks. It is primarily designed for highly recurrent networks, but it can also be used with multi-layer nets, though performance won't be the same. Though only Leaky integrate-and-fire (for the neurons) and Spike-Timing Dependent Plasticity (for learning rules) are currently implemented, adding new models shouldn't be too difficult.
Brain Workshop is an implementation of the Dual N-Back mental exercise. This exercise is a mental activity that has been scientifically shown to improve your working memory (short-term memory) and fluid intelligence. The game involves remembering a sequence of spoken letters and a sequence of positions of a square at the same time. Brain Workshop includes additional challenging game modes beyond Dual N-Back.
PyMVPA (Python MultiVariate Pattern Analysis) is a Python module intended to ease pattern classification analyses of large data sets. It provides high-level abstraction of typical processing steps and a number of implementations of some popular algorithms. While it is not limited to the neuroimaging domain, it is eminently suited for such data sets. It requires nothing but free software to run.