ID3.py is an object-oriented Python module for manipulating the so-called ID3 informational tags on MP3 files, which include such data as artist, track title, genre, et cetera. ID3.py is extremely easy to use, and is intended for folks who are developing MP3 encoder wrapper programs or browsers in Python.
juked is a daemon that turns a server into a music jukebox. Clients communicate with the server via TCP/IP using an XML protocol. It features playlist support, user authentication (optionally with PAM), and random track selection. Audio decoding is done using XMMS plugins, so both Ogg and MP3 are supported. Track (song) information can be stored internally or in a MySQL database.
MPy3 is a full-featured, modular, configurable MP3 player system aimed at jukeboxes or car MP3 systems. It can play MP3s via rxaudio or mpg123, take input from a keyboard (tty), LIRC, or joystick. It does output through a CrystalFontz LCD directly, or through any LCD that LCDProc supports, or even through X. It features playlist support and support for controlling the mixer (using aumix). All of the inputs, outputs, and other functions are controlled via a number of modular libraries which can be used in other projects as well.
Cymbaline is a learning music player. It sets a score for each track based on your listening habits, and you can set thresholds to create playlists with your favorite tracks automatically. In random mode, it will play your favorite tracks more often. It also allows album-based navigation: you can start playing the next album, skip 2 albums ahead, go to a specific album, etc. It has a random queue mode where you see a list of randomly chosen tracks that play consecutively. The queue is also built based on song scores.
Cjukebox is a curses-based player and manager for audio files and playlists. Its user interface was inspired by the Norton Commander for DOS. It does not rely on a separate database application. Playback is handled by the Musicus tool, which plays all audio formats supported by xmms (wav, Ogg, MP3, Flac, MPC, etc.).
Freevo is a Linux application that turns a PC with a TV capture card and/or TV-out into a standalone multimedia jukebox/VCR/PVR/HTPC/DVR/set-top box. It uses MPlayer and other applications to play and record audio and video. It is optimized for use with a TV and remote, but can be used with a monitor and keyboard.