changedfiles is a framework for filesystem replication, security monitoring, and/or automatic file transformations--essentially any application where you'd poll files or directories and either do something to them or send them somewhere else (or both). The difference is that the kernel tells you when they change instead of you having to poll. It's an easy real time FTP push mirror to one or multiple sites. It's also a full fledged MySQL client, so you can do realtime database operations (for example, batch imports). It consists of two parts: a kernel module (works with Linux kernel version 2.4) which reports to a device whenever a file on the filesystem changes, and a daemon which runs in user space and can be configured to do almost any action when a change to a file matching the one of the patterns it looks for is reported. The kernel module is SMP safe and has been tested on Intel, PowerPC, and Alpha.
rdiff-backup backs up one directory to another. The target directory ends up a copy of the source directory, but extra reverse diffs are stored in a special directory so you can still recover files lost some time ago. The idea is to combine the best features of a mirror and an incremental backup. rdiff-backup can also operate in a bandwidth- efficient manner over a pipe, like rsync. Thus you can use rdiff-backup and ssh to securely back up to a remote location, and only the differences will be transmitted. It can also handle symlinks, device files, permissions, ownership, etc., so it can be used on the entire file system.
rsynchelper helps you use the mirroring program rsync. rsynchelper makes it easier for groups of servers to cooperate in mirroring. rsynchelper makes it easier to make your content available for others to mirror, makes it easier to mirror someone else's content, and it automates the maintenance of an accurate list of who is maintaining which content.
wgrab is a Perl script for for retrieving Web documents from the command line. It allows you to use date-based and/or number-based patterns to specify the documents to download. Regular expressions can be used to restrict which references are to be followed when performing recursive retrieval.
UDPCast allows to send data simultaneously to many destinations on a local net. This can for instance be used to install entire classrooms of PCs at once. The advantage over using other methods (nfs, ftp, whatever) is that udpcast uses Ethernet's multicast abilities: it won't take longer to install 15 machines than it would to install 2. The tool comes with a busybox bootdisk for easy loading of the tool. However, udpcast can also be started from the command line of an already installed system, and can be used for other purposes than just system installation.