Bitcoin is a peer-to-peer electronic cash system that is completely decentralized, without the need for a central server or trusted parties. Users hold the crypto keys to their own money and transact directly with each other, with the help of a P2P network to check for double-spending.
The Parsing Expression Grammar Template Library (PEGTL) is a C++0x library for creating parsers according to a Parsing Expression Grammar (PEG). Grammars are embedded as regular C++ code, created with template programming (not template meta programming). These hierarchies naturally correspond to the inductive definition of PEGs. The library extends on the subject of PEGs with new expression types, actions that can be attached to grammar rules, and mechanisms to ensure helpful diagnostics in case of parsing errors. PEGs are superficially similar to Context-Free Grammars (CFGs).
P2P-Fusion is a software system that supports audiovisual creative activities and makes it easy for anyone to create, reuse, and share audio and video productions over the Internet legally, without costly servers and complicated system management. Fusion binds together a peer-to-peer network, a distributed semantic database, social enrichment features, support for embedded licenses, and a social media application toolkit into an integrated easy-to-use solution.
PyCryptoPlus is a cryptographic module similar to PyCrypto, with which it shares the API. But PyCryptoPlus is written 100% in Python, so its primary interest is educational and scientific; if you want real speed, you're better checking out PyCrypto. It was not completely written from scratch, but integrates other cipher codes when available in Python and under appropriate licenses. It contains, among other things: Block cipher algorithms (Serpent, Blowfish, Twofish, DES, 3DES, AES, Rijndael, and PRESENT); modes of operation (CMAC, ECB, CBC, CTR, and XTS); paddings (bit padding, zeros, PKCS7, PKCS12, ISO 10126, and ANSI X.923); and one-way functions (MD5, SHA1/SHA2, Whirlpool, RipeMD, RadioGatun, HMAC, and PBKDF2).