Puppet lets you centrally manage every important aspect of your system using a cross-platform specification language that manages all the separate elements normally aggregated in different files, including users, cron jobs, and hosts, along with obviously discrete elements like packages, services, and files. Its simple declarative specification language provides powerful classing abilities for drawing out the similarities between hosts while allowing them to be as specific as necessary, and it handles dependency and prerequisite relationships between objects clearly and explicitly.
Facter is a simple cross-platform library for determining basic facts about an operating system, like the operating system name, IP address, or MAC address. It supports multiple mechanisms for resolving a given fact, and these mechanisms can be restricted to only working on specified operating systems or operating system releases.
Valentina is cross-platform SQL and non-SQL columnar database that allows development of client-server [Web] solutions and applications with an embedded local database using the same sources. Valentina DB provides an Object-Relational model, but you can also mix Relational and Extended Navigational. It introduces a revolutionary model abstraction "Link" that greatly simplifies db schema, and therefore simplifies SQL queries. It supports disk and in-memory databases, and field types including Bit, BLOB, Pictures, and Enum. It provides advanced features such as triggers, views, stored procedures, regular expressions, XML, full-text search, and calculated fields. It exists as Valentina Server, Valentina Studio, and a set of Valentina ADKs for all major programming languages.
BDDs [bry86] (or more precisely ROBDDs) are efficient data structures for representing a boolean formula. They are widely used in formal verification, in particular symbolic model-checking. Ruby- BDD, based on Buddy, provides access to BDDs from Ruby, a powerful and very easy to use object-oriented language. The purposes are quick prototyping and education.