DansTuner is a program to tell you if you are playing a pitch in tune. Major features include automatic discovery of which note you are trying to play (good for trumpet, singer, etc.), the ability to play a guide tone at a configurable volume, a graphical moving "needle" with a red/green display and detail about how flat or sharp you are, and an easily configurable background noise threshold.
Transcribe! is an assistant for working out a piece of music from a recording. It offers many features aimed at making the transcription job smoother and easier, including the ability to slow down the music without changing its pitch, and to analyse chords and show you what notes are present.
Baudline is a time-frequency browser designed for scientific visualization of the spectral domain. Signal analysis is performed by Fourier, correlation, and raster transforms that create colorful spectrograms with vibrant detail. Conduct test and measurement experiments with the built in function generator, or play back audio files with a multitude of effects and filters. The baudline signal analyzer combines fast digital signal processing, versatile high speed displays, and continuous capture tools for hunting down and studying elusive signal characteristics.
Audacity is a cross-platform multitrack audio editor. It allows you to record sounds directly or to import Ogg, WAV, AIFF, AU, IRCAM, or MP3 files. It features a few simple effects, all of the editing features you should need, and unlimited undo. The audio I/O uses PortAudio, which fully supports OSS, Mac OS X CoreAudio, and Windows WMME, and can be compiled with support for ALSA and Jack.