Finnix is a small, self-contained, bootable Linux CD distribution ("LiveCD") for system administrators, based on Debian testing. You can use it to mount and manipulate hard drives and partitions, monitor networks, rebuild boot records, install other operating systems, and much more.
Linux is a clone of the Unix kernel, written from scratch by Linus Torvalds with assistance from a loosely-knit team of hackers across the Net. It aims towards POSIX and Single UNIX Specification compliance. It has all the features you would expect in a modern fully-fledged Unix kernel, including true multitasking, virtual memory, shared libraries, demand loading, shared copy-on-write executables, proper memory management, and TCP/IP networking.
musl is a new implementation of the standard library for Linux-based systems. It is lightweight, fast, simple, free, and strives to be correct in the sense of standards-conformance and safety. It includes a wrapper for building programs against musl in place of the system standard library (e.g. glibc), making it possible to immediately evaluate the library and build compact statically linked binaries with it.
Owl (Openwall GNU/*/Linux) is a small security-enhanced Linux distribution for servers. Owl also makes a good base system for customized virtual machine images and embedded systems, and Owl live CDs with remote SSH access are good for recovering or installing systems (whether with Owl or not). A single Owl CD includes the full live system, installable packages, the installer program, as well as full source code and the build environment capable of rebuilding the entire system from source. Owl supports multiple architectures (x86, x86-64, SPARC, and Alpha) and offers some compatibility for packages developed for other Linux distributions. The primary approaches to security are proactive source code review, privilege reduction, privilege separation, careful selection of third-party software, safe defaults, and "hardening" to reduce the likelihood of successful exploitation of security flaws.
Chakra Linux is a Linux distribution that combines the simplicity of Arch Linux with KDE. It is fast, user-friendly, and extremely powerful. It can be used as a live CD or installed to hard disk. Chakra is currently under heavy and active development. It features a graphical installer and automatic hardware configuration. Chakra provides a modular and tweaked package set of the KDE Software Compilation with a lot of useful additions. It features the concept of half-rolling releases and freshly cooked packages and bundles. It is designed for people who really want to learn something about Linux or don't want to deal with administrative overhead.
G4L is a hard disk and partition imaging and cloning tool. The created images are optionally compressed, and they can be stored on a local hard drive or transferred to an anonymous FTP server. A drive can be cloned using the "Click'n'Clone" function. G4L supports file splitting if the local filesystem does not support writing files larger than 2GB. The included kernel supports ATA, serial-ATA, and SCSI drives. Common network cards are supported. It is packaged as a bootable CD image with an ncurses GUI for easy use.