Linux is a clone of the Unix kernel, written from scratch by Linus Torvalds with assistance from a loosely-knit team of hackers across the Net. It aims towards POSIX and Single UNIX Specification compliance. It has all the features you would expect in a modern fully-fledged Unix kernel, including true multitasking, virtual memory, shared libraries, demand loading, shared copy-on-write executables, proper memory management, and TCP/IP networking.
G4L is a hard disk and partition imaging and cloning tool. The created images are optionally compressed, and they can be stored on a local hard drive or transferred to an anonymous FTP server. A drive can be cloned using the "Click'n'Clone" function. G4L supports file splitting if the local filesystem does not support writing files larger than 2GB. The included kernel supports ATA, serial-ATA, and SCSI drives. Common network cards are supported. It is packaged as a bootable CD image with an ncurses GUI for easy use.
Recovery Is Possible (RIP) is a CD or USB boot/rescue/backup/maintenance system. It has support for many filesystem types (Reiserfs, Btrfs, Ext2/3/4, HFS+, ISO-9660, Squashfs, UDF, XFS, JFS, UFS2, CIFS, MS DOS, NTFS, and VFAT) and contains several utilities for system recovery. It also has IDE/SCSI/SATA, RAID, LVM2, and Ethernet/Wireless network support.
GeeXboX is a standalone media player Linux distribution, similar to MoviX. It's a small bootable CD that allows you to play your favorite video (DivX, XviD, H.264, MPEG 1/2, VCD, DVD, OggMedia, Windows Media, RealMedia, etc.) and audio (MP3, Audio CD, Ogg Vorbis, FLAC, MPC, etc.) files. It also supports networking, and is able to play media from Windows/Samba share, NFS, UPnP A/V Media Servers, RTP/RTSP servers, or SHOUTcast. It supports TV-out, TV tuners, DVB cards, and WiFi cards. It is based on MPlayer, and can be used on any x86, x86_64, or PowerPC computer. It's easy to modify the source to build your own GeeXboX or use an alternative boot method.
NASLite is a Network Attached Storage (NAS) server operating system designed to transform a basic computer into a dedicated file server. Utilizing highly optimized versions of Samba, uCLibc, BusyBox, and various other Linux tools, it provides SMB/CIFS, FTP, or NFS filesystem support. It accommodates multiple client OSes: Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux. NASLite offers SMART disk monitoring and large file support, and is incredibly easy to install and administer.
CentOS is an enterprise Linux distribution based on the sources from Red Hat Enterprise Linux. CentOS conforms with Red Hat's redistribution policy and aims to be 100% binary compatible. Each CentOS version is supported for 7 years (by means of security updates). A new CentOS version is released every 2 years and each CentOS version is regularly updated (every 6 months) to support newer hardware. Currently, there are 4 different supported CentOS releases: CentOS-5 is based on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5, CentOS-4 is based on RHEL4, CentOS-3 is based on RHEL3, and CentOS-2 is based on RHAS2.1.
Devil-Linux is a special secure Linux distribution which is used for firewalls, routers, gateways, and servers. The goal of Devil-Linux is to have a small, customizable, and secure Linux system. Configuration is saved on a floppy disk or USB stick, and it has several optional packages. Devil-Linux boots from CD, but can be stored on CF cards or USB sticks.