GeeXboX is a standalone media player Linux distribution, similar to MoviX. It's a small bootable CD that allows you to play your favorite video (DivX, XviD, H.264, MPEG 1/2, VCD, DVD, OggMedia, Windows Media, RealMedia, etc.) and audio (MP3, Audio CD, Ogg Vorbis, FLAC, MPC, etc.) files. It also supports networking, and is able to play media from Windows/Samba share, NFS, UPnP A/V Media Servers, RTP/RTSP servers, or SHOUTcast. It supports TV-out, TV tuners, DVB cards, and WiFi cards. It is based on MPlayer, and can be used on any x86, x86_64, or PowerPC computer. It's easy to modify the source to build your own GeeXboX or use an alternative boot method.
musl is a new implementation of the standard library for Linux-based systems. It is lightweight, fast, simple, free, and strives to be correct in the sense of standards-conformance and safety. It includes a wrapper for building programs against musl in place of the system standard library (e.g. glibc), making it possible to immediately evaluate the library and build compact statically linked binaries with it.
DirectFB is a thin library that provides developers with hardware graphics acceleration, input device handling and abstraction, an integrated windowing system with support for translucent windows and multiple display layers on top of the Linux framebuffer device. It is a complete hardware abstraction layer with software fallbacks for every graphics operation that is not supported by the underlying hardware.
uClibc (µClibc) is a C library for developing embedded Linux systems. It is much smaller then the GNU C Library, but nearly all applications supported by glibc also work perfectly with uClibc. Porting applications from glibc to uClibc typically involves just recompiling the source code. uClibc even supports shared libraries and threading. It currently runs on standard Linux and MMU-less Linux (also known as µClinux) systems with support for ARM, i386, h8300, m68k, MIPS, mipsel, PowerPC, SH, SPARC, and v850 processors.
Compact Flash Linux Project is a Linux distribution designed to run on a compact flash card in read-only mode. It is as small as possible, and currently needs around 14 MB. It includes OpenSSH, quagga, iptables, hostap, madwifi, wireless-tools, pppoe, tcpdump, bridge-utils, and more.
wrt54g-linux is a mini-distribution for the Linksys wrt54g 802.11b/g access point and router. It includes basic tools such as sh, syslog, telnetd, httpd (with cgi-bin support), vi, snort, mount, insmod, rmmod, top, grep, find, nfs modules, etc. The installation script runs in about 20 seconds and installs strictly to the RAM disk. If you mess anything up, simply reset the box. After installing the distribution you'll be able to telnet in, add Web pages, change iptable rules, change routing, configure snort, etc.
JayOS is a live CD Linux distribution intended for use as a more secure mobile environment. It uses GNU makefiles and Bash shell scripts to automate the building of a complete Linux distribution from source. The result is a turnkey solution for creating a compact, highly-customizable OS. JayOS includes many standard network security and filesystem tools, a full-blown development environment, and many programming tools and libraries including GCC, GDB, DDD, Perl, GTK+, Tcl/Tk, PHP, Ruby, Python, Qt, and Glade. It runs well on commodity hardware, and can be configured to run entirely from memory. In-RAM filesystem encryption with plausible deniability provides a more secure mobile workstation. It is based on Linux From Scratch.
WISP-Dist is a modular embedded Linux distribution for wireless routers, but can be used for other purposes as well. The entire system fits in 8 MB flash/16 MB RAM. Highlights include an easy-to-use menu interface, commandline access, an Access Point mode (on selected cards), OSPF/RIPv2, bandwidth shaping, NAT, Layer 3 (proxy arp) bridging, and other goodies. The goal is to create an open, customizable, and easy-to-use solution for wireless routers.
Thinux is a thin-client server on a live CD. It boots a network of diskless computers to automatically start an application such as a Web browser. Each thin client machine acts as a cluster node to share its processing and memory resources with each other to take the load off the server. It is a turnkey solution that does not change nor rely on your existing systems to run. By booting from a removable CD, it does not lock-in the user so it is convenient to test. It is ideal for any organizations that require large deployment of software automatically and cost effectively.