Linux is a clone of the Unix kernel, written from scratch by Linus Torvalds with assistance from a loosely-knit team of hackers across the Net. It aims towards POSIX and Single UNIX Specification compliance. It has all the features you would expect in a modern fully-fledged Unix kernel, including true multitasking, virtual memory, shared libraries, demand loading, shared copy-on-write executables, proper memory management, and TCP/IP networking.
Kernel Mode Linux is a technology which enables the execution of user programs in a kernel mode. In Kernel Mode Linux, user programs can access kernel address space directly. Unlike kernel modules, user programs are executed as ordinary processes (except for their privilege level), so scheduling and paging are performed as usual. Although it seems dangerous, the safety of the kernel can be ensured through such methods as static type checking, software fault isolation, and so forth.
GeeXboX is a standalone media player Linux distribution, similar to MoviX. It's a small bootable CD that allows you to play your favorite video (DivX, XviD, H.264, MPEG 1/2, VCD, DVD, OggMedia, Windows Media, RealMedia, etc.) and audio (MP3, Audio CD, Ogg Vorbis, FLAC, MPC, etc.) files. It also supports networking, and is able to play media from Windows/Samba share, NFS, UPnP A/V Media Servers, RTP/RTSP servers, or SHOUTcast. It supports TV-out, TV tuners, DVB cards, and WiFi cards. It is based on MPlayer, and can be used on any x86, x86_64, or PowerPC computer. It's easy to modify the source to build your own GeeXboX or use an alternative boot method.
Linux NTFS provides Linux kernel drivers, a multiplatform NTFS library, and tools to create, resize, clone, rescue, query, label and fix NTFS volumes, and to undelete, resize, list, and query files for the filesystem used by Windows XP, 2003, 2000, NT4, and Vista. It also provides support for the Logical Disk Manager (LDM) that controls Windows' Dynamic Disks and is used to create software mirrors, stripes, and RAID.
grsecurity is a complete security system for Linux 2.4 and 2.6 that implements a detection/prevention/containment strategy. It prevents most forms of address space modification, confines programs via its Role-Based Access Control system, hardens syscalls, provides full-featured auditing, and implements many of the OpenBSD randomness features. It was written for performance, ease-of-use, and security. The RBAC system has an intelligent learning mode that can generate least privilege policies for the entire system with no configuration. All of grsecurity supports a feature that logs the IP of the attacker that causes an alert or audit.
NSA Security-enhanced Linux is a set of patches to the Linux kernel and some utilities to incorporate a strong, flexible mandatory access control architecture into the major subsystems of the kernel. It provides a mechanism to enforce the separation of information based on confidentiality and integrity requirements, which allows threats of tampering and bypassing of application security mechanisms to be addressed and enables the confinement of damage that can be caused by malicious or flawed applications. It includes a set of sample security policy configuration files designed to meet common, general-purpose security goals.
dstat is a versatile replacement for vmstat, iostat, netstat, nfsstat, and ifstat. It includes various counters (in separate plugins) and allows you to select and view all of your system resources instantly; you can, for example, compare disk usage in combination with interrupts from your IDE controller, or compare the network bandwidth numbers directly with the disk throughput (in the same interval).