Linux is a clone of the Unix kernel, written from scratch by Linus Torvalds with assistance from a loosely-knit team of hackers across the Net. It aims towards POSIX and Single UNIX Specification compliance. It has all the features you would expect in a modern fully-fledged Unix kernel, including true multitasking, virtual memory, shared libraries, demand loading, shared copy-on-write executables, proper memory management, and TCP/IP networking.
Socat is a relay for bidirectional data transfer between two independent data channels. Each of these data channels may be a file, pipe, device (terminal or modem, etc.), socket (Unix, IP4, IP6 - raw, UDP, TCP), SSL, a client for SOCKS4, or proxy CONNECT. It supports broadcasts and multicasts, abstract Unix sockets, Linux tun/tap, GNU readline, and PTYs. It provides forking, logging, and dumping and different modes for interprocess communication. Many options are available for tuning socat and its channels. Socat can be used, for example, as a TCP relay (one-shot or daemon), as a daemon-based socksifier, as a shell interface to Unix sockets, as an IP6 relay, or for redirecting TCP-oriented programs to a serial line.
Snort is a network intrusion detection and prevention system. It is the most widely deployed technology of its kind in the world. It performs detection using a variety of methods including rules-based detection, anomaly detection, and heuristic analysis of network traffic. Its rules language is open source and available to the public as well.
BalanceNG is a modern, IPv6 capable software IP load balancing solution. It is small, fast, and easy to use and set up. It offers session persistence, different distribution methods (Round Robin, Random, Weighted Random, Least Session, Least Bandwidth, Hash, Agent, and Randomized Agent) and a customizable UDP health check agent in source code. It supports VRRP to set up high availability configurations on multiple nodes. It supports SNMP, integrating the BALANCENG-MIB with Net-SNMPD. It implements a very fast in-memory IP-to-location database, allowing powerful location-based server load-balancing.
Wine is an implementation of the Windows API on top of X and Unix. It does not require Microsoft Windows, but can use native Windows DLLs if they are available. It provides both a development toolkit for porting Windows source code to Unix as well as a program loader, allowing many unmodified Windows programs to run on x86-based Unixes.
fio is an I/O tool meant to be used both for benchmark and stress/hardware verification. It has support for 13 different types of I/O engines (sync, mmap, libaio, posixaio, SG v3, splice, null, network, syslet, guasi, solarisaio, and more), I/O priorities (for newer Linux kernels), rate I/O, forked or threaded jobs, and much more. It can work on block devices as well as files. fio accepts job descriptions in a simple-to-understand text format. Several example job files are included. fio displays all sorts of I/O performance information, including complete IO latencies and percentiles. Fio is in wide use in many places, for both benchmarking, QA, and verification purposes. It supports Linux, FreeBSD, NetBSD, OS X, OpenSolaris, AIX, HP-UX, and Windows.
GIMP is the GNU Image Manipulation Program. It is a freely distributed piece of software suitable for such tasks as photo retouching, image composition and image authoring. It can be used as a simple paint program, an expert quality photo retouching program, an online batch processing system, a mass production image renderer, a image format converter, etc.
The sysstat package contains the sar, sadf, iostat, nfsiostat, cifsiostat, mpstat, and pidstat commands for Linux. The sar command collects and reports system activity information. The statistics reported by sar concern I/O transfer rates, paging activity, process-related activites, interrupts, network activity, memory and swap space utilization, CPU utilization, kernel activities, and TTY statistics, among others. The sadf command may be used to display data collected by sar in various formats. The iostat command reports CPU statistics and I/O statistics for tty devices and disks. The pidstat command reports statistics for Linux processes. The mpstat command reports global and per-processor statistics. The nfsiostat command reports I/O statistics for network filesystems. The cifsiostat command reports I/O statistics for CIFS filesystems.
syslog-ng is a syslogd replacement for a wide variety of UNIX systems that supports IPv6 and is capable of transferring log messages reliably using TCP and SSL and filtering the content of messages using regular expressions. Both RFC3164 and RFC5424 style messages are handled, but more esoteric formats like BSD process accounting logs are supported too. Apart from regular text files, it supports storing messages into SQL and MongoDB databases, and forward messages to local processes via pipes or UNIX domain sockets. This makes syslog-ng ideal as an integration platform. syslog-ng supports extracting structured information from the traditionally text based syslog via csv-parser(), db-parser(), and patterndb. Tag based classification, rewriting messages, and outputting messages in JSON is also possible. This makes syslog-ng ideal for preprocessing events for further analysis, be that home-grown scripts or SIEM systems. syslog-ng scales well on today's multi processor and multi-core systems: reaching 1,000,000 messages per second is a reality for the simplest use cases.