Apache Cocoon is a Web development framework built around the concepts of separation of concerns and component-based Web development. Cocoon implements these concepts around the notion of "component pipelines", each component on the pipeline specializing on a particular operation. This makes it possible to use a Lego(tm)-like approach in building Web solutions, hooking together components into pipelines without any required programming.
jSieve is a Java implementation of the Sieve mail filtering language defined by RFC 3028. Sieve is an extensible mail filtering language. Its limited expressiveness (no loops or variables and no tests with side effects) allows user created scripts to be run safely on email servers. Sieve is targeted at the final delivery phase (where an incoming email is transferred to a user's mailbox). jSieve is implemented as a language processor that can be plugged into any Internet mail application to add Sieve support.
Apache Jakarta Regexp is a 100% pure Java regular expression package. Expression syntax supports all of Perl5 syntax, with the exception of back reference substitution markers (several people have mentioned this lack, so please feel free to contribute a solution). It also supports a very limited subset of POSIX features. Performance and features are somewhat inferior to ORO, and the new JDK 1.4 (java.util.regex) package, but the package is especially small and features the ability to precompile expressions (without using object serialization) into byte arrays, thus avoiding the need to load the expression compiler.
Velocity is a Java-based template engine. It permits anyone to use the simple yet powerful template language to reference objects defined in Java code. When Velocity is used for Web development, Web designers can work in parallel with Java programmers to develop Web sites according to the Model-View-Controller (MVC) model, meaning that Web page designers can focus solely on creating a site that looks good, and programmers can focus solely on writing top-notch code. Velocity separates Java code from the Web pages, making the web site more maintainable over the long run and providing a viable alternative to Java Server Pages (JSPs) or PHP. Velocity also provides template services for the Turbine Web application framework, making a template service that allows Web applications to be developed according to a true MVC model.
Apache XML Graphics Commons is a library that consists of several reusable components used by Apache Batik and Apache FOP. Many of these components can easily be used separately outside the domains of SVG and XSL-FO. You will find components such as a PDF library, an RTF library, Graphics2D implementations that let you generate PDF and PostScript files, and much more.