PHP is a widely-used Open Source general-purpose scripting language that is especially suited for Web development and can be embedded into HTML. Its syntax draws upon C, Java, and Perl, and is easy to learn. PHP runs on many different platforms and can be used as a standalone executable or as a module under a variety of Web servers. It has excellent support for databases, XML, LDAP, IMAP, Java, various Internet protocols, and general data manipulation, and is extensible via its powerful API. It is actively developed and supported by a talented and energetic international team. Numerous Open Source and commercial PHP-based application packages are available.
Python is an interpreted, interactive, object-oriented programming language. It combines remarkable power with very clear syntax, and isn't difficult to learn. It has modules, classes, exceptions, very high level data types, and dynamic typing. There are interfaces to many system calls and libraries, as well as to various windowing systems (Tk, Mac, MFC, GTK+, Qt, wxWindows). New built-in modules are easily written in C or C++. Python is also usable as an extension language for applications that need a programmable interface.
Perl is a high-level, general-purpose programming language that makes easy things easy and hard things possible. It is optimized for scanning arbitrary text files and system administration. It has built-in extended regular expression matching and replacement, a dataflow mechanism to improve security with setuid scripts and is extensible via modules that can interface to C libraries.
TXR is a new data munging language. TXR's special pattern language provides template-based matching of entire documents or large sections of documents. It also contains a language for functional and imperative programming. It is written in C and takes the form of a utility that is portable to Unix-like platforms and Windows.
R is a language and environment for statistical computing and graphics. It is similar to S, which was developed at Bell Laboratories by John Chambers et al. It provides a wide variety of statistical and graphical techniques (linear and nonlinear modelling, statistical tests, time series analysis, classification, clustering, etc.). R is designed as a true computer language with control-flow constructions for iteration and alternation, and it allows users to add additional functionality by defining new functions. For computationally intensive tasks, Fortran and C code can be linked and called at run time.
HGL is a compiler/interpreter suite for developing images. It features its own simple but powerful language, Lua integration, output in various formats as well as runtime input handled by plugins, and easy integration into various environments like Web servers or graphical applications. The input is taken from a source file, which has to be compiled for quick and frequent access by the interpreter. An interpreter then runs the compiled files, takes input from custom plugins (if neccessary), and outputs its result via custom plugins.
Frink is a calculating tool and programming language designed to help you in the real world. It tracks units of measurement throughout all calculations and ensures that answers are correct. It converts between systems of measurement, and has a huge library of physical data. It is both a simple calculator for quick calculations and a full-fledged programming language for large tasks. It draws high-quality graphics, handles conversions between time zones, currencies, and historical values of the U.S. dollar and the British pound, translates between several languages, does date/time math, and more.
Zsh is a UNIX command interpreter (shell) which of the standard shells most resembles the Korn shell (ksh). It includes enhancements of many types, notably in the command-line editor, options for customising its behaviour, filename globbing, features to make C-shell (csh) users feel more at home and extra features drawn from tcsh.
Ruby is a language for quick and easy programming. Similar in scope to Perl and Python, it has high-level data types, automatic memory management, dynamic typing, a module system, exceptions, and a rich standard library. What sets Ruby apart is a clean and consistent language design where everything is an object. Other distinguishing features are CLU-style iterators for loop abstraction, singleton classes/methods and lexical closures.