Ghostscript is a processor for PostScript and PDF files. It can rasterize these files to a wide variety of printers, devices for screen preview, and image file formats. Since applications tend to prepare pages for printing in a high-level format such as PostScript, most Unix users with low-level bitmap printers, such as inkjets, use GhostScript as part of the printing process. In addition, Ghostscript is capable of converting PostScript files, functionality comparable to Adobe Acrobat Distiller, but on the command line. In addition, Ghostscript is used for file import and viewing by a great many other applications, including xv, ImageMagick, gimp, and xdvi. Several GUI wrappers for viewing PostScript and PDF files exist, including GSview, ghostview, gv, ggv, and kghostview. This is far from a comprehensive list.
BRL-CAD is a powerful constructive solid geometry solid modeling system that includes an interactive geometry editor, ray-tracing support for rendering and geometric analysis, path-tracing for realistic image synthesis, network distributed framebuffer support, and image and signal-processing tools.
DeuTex is a wad composer for Doom, Heretic, Hexen and Strife. It can be used to extract the lumps of a wad and save them as individual files. Conversely, it can also build a wad from separate files. When extracting a lump to a file, it does not just copy the raw data, it converts it to an appropriate format (such as PPM for graphics, .au for samples, etc.). When it reads files for inclusion in pwads, it does the necessary reciprocal conversions. In addition, DeuTex has functions such as merging wads, etc.
hp2xx is a versatile tool to convert vector-oriented graphics data given in Hewlett-Packard's HP-GL (a.k.a. HPGL) plotter language into a variety of popular both vector- and raster-oriented graphics formats. The various supported output formats include Encapsulated PostScript (EPS), PCX, IMG, and several formats intended to facilitate the generation of graphics within TeX documents. In addition, hp2xx output is printable on the HP Laserjet/Deskjet printer series, and it may be used as a HP-GL previewer on many platforms, e.g. X11 and DOS (VGA).
ICCLIB implements support for reading and writing of color profile files that conform to the International Color Consortium (ICC) Profile Format Specification, Version 3.4. The ICC Profile Format is a cross-platform device profile format that can be used to translate color data created on one device into another device's native color space. See the profile specification at color.org. In summary ICCLIB provides support for all version 3.4 header elements, Tags, and Tag Types, conversion to/from machine native representation of all data types, user-defined Tags, adding/deleting Tags, Tag type sharing within a file (often used for sharing LUTs amongst intents), reading/writing embedded profiles, a single function for transforming color values through a profile (including support for intents, forward and reverse transforms, gamut lookup or preview lookup), support and code examples for creating all profile types, monochrome, matrix, and Lut, and it loads Tag Types on demand to conserve memory space.
The icoutils are a set of programs for extracting and converting images in Microsoft Windows icon and cursor files. These files usually have the extension .ico or .cur, but they can also be embedded in executables and libraries (.dll-files). Icoutils can also create icon and cursor files.
Ilib is an image manipulation library for developers. It's capable of reading and writing images (PPM/PGM, PNG, JPEG, GIF, XPM, BMP) and many drawing functions including drawing lines and text using any BDF (X11) font. It's great for generating GIFs/PNGs from a CGI or generating graphs. Ilib includes sample applications for generating graphs for HTTP access.log files and QuakeWorld server frag log files and a tool for creating image indices from a group of images.
Jhead is a command line driven utility for extracting digital camera settings from the Exif format files used by many digital cameras. It handles the various confusing ways these can be expressed, and displays them as F-stop, shutter speed, etc. It is also able to reduce the size of digital camera JPEGs without loss of information, by deleting integral thumbnails that digital cameras put into the Exif header. If you need to add Exif support to a program, this is a simple program to cut and paste from. Many projects, including PHP, have reused code from this utility.