Mapnik is a toolkit for developing GIS applications. At the core is a C++ shared library providing algorithms/patterns for spatial data access and visualization. Essentially a collection of geographic objects (map, layer, datasource, feature, and geometry), the library doesn't rely on "windowing systems" and can be deployed in any server environment. It is intended to play fair in a multi-threaded environment and is aimed primarily, but not exclusively, at Web-based development. High-level Python bindings (boost.python) facilitate rapid application development, targeting zope3, django, etc.
Stanford Exploration Project Library (SEPlib) is a software package that was developed to manipulate and process many types of geophysical data. It includes libraries for manipulating 2D and 3D data and pipe-fed command-line utilities. It has support for parallelization through MPI and OpenMP and supports connectors to other geophysical packages.
PrimaGIS is a collaborative Web mapping application for Plone that is built on top of MapServer, Python Cartographic Library (PCL), and Cartographic Objects for Zope (ZCO). In addition to supporting traditional spatial data sources (e.g. shapefiles, PostGIS databases, raster images, and WMS/WFS services), it allows users to combine data from a content management system (Plone) within the maps.
GeoTypes is a Python library that implements both the OpenGIS/PostGIS and standard PostgreSQL geometry types. It integrates with the psycopg Python/PostgreSQL interface. It provides implementations of all of the OpenGIS/PostGIS classes, except (x,y,m) and (x,y,z,m). It currently supports the EWKB, HEXEWKB, WKB, and WKT formats.
np is a compact NMEA parser. It provides quick and flexible access to GPS data from various sources. Data can be read from devices, text files, STDIN, or GPSD (raw mode). The list of supported NMEA sentences includes $GPRMC, $GPGGA, $GPGSA, $GPGSV, as well as Garmin's proprietary $PGRME and $PGRMM. By employing user-definable stylesheets, the parser output can be adapted to numerous application scenarios. The parser can be queried directly from the console or through the included Web front end.