Chiron FS is a FUSE based filesystem that implements replication at the filesystem level like RAID 1 does at the device level. The replicated filesystem may be of any kind you want; the only requisite is that you mount it. There is no need for special configuration files; the setup is as simple as one mount command (or one line in fstab).
EncFS is an encrypted pass-through filesystem which runs in userspace on Linux (using the FUSE kernel module). Similar in design to CFS and other pass-through filesystems, all data is encrypted and stored in the underlying filesystem. Unlike loopback filesystems, there is no predetermined or pre-allocated filesystem size.
GNU xorriso creates, loads, manipulates, and writes ISO 9660 filesystem images with Rock Ridge extensions. Files can be copied in and out. The session results get written to optical media or to filesystem objects. Rather than needing external tools for ISO 9660 production and CD/DVD/BD burning, it is a static compilation of libburnia-project.org. Thus GNU xorriso depends only on fundamental operating system facilities.