EncFS is an encrypted pass-through filesystem which runs in userspace on Linux (using the FUSE kernel module). Similar in design to CFS and other pass-through filesystems, all data is encrypted and stored in the underlying filesystem. Unlike loopback filesystems, there is no predetermined or pre-allocated filesystem size.
Gfarm is a distributed filesystem, generally used for large scale cluster computing. It's implemented in userland, and can be mounted by FUSE. It utilizes locality of a file to access a data node, and supports Globus GSI for Wide Area Network. Users can explicitly control file replica location on Gfarm. Gfarm can be used as an alternative storage system to HDFS for Hadoop, Samba, MPI-IO, and GridFTP. Monitoring via ZABBIX and Ganglia is also supported.
S3QL is a file system that stores all its data online. It supports Amazon S3, Google Storage, and OpenStack and effectively provides you with a hard disk of dynamic, infinite capacity that can be accessed from any computer with Internet access. S3QL provides a standard, full featured Unix file system that is conceptually indistinguishable from any local file system. Additional features include compression, encryption, data de-duplication, immutable trees, and snapshotting, which make it especially suitable for online backup and archiving. The design favors simplicity and elegance over performance and feature-creep. Care has been taken to make the source code as readable and serviceable as possible. Solid error detection, error handling, and extensive automated test cases are provided.