HTTPTunnel is a simple client/server application for creating an HTTP tunnel between two machines, optionally via a Web proxy. This tunnel can then be used to wrap arbitrary TCP socket traffic in HTTP, thus allowing communications even through a restrictive firewall that only allows outgoing HTTP connections.
conntrack-tools is a set of userspace tools for Linux that allow system administrators to interact with the Connection Tracking System, the module which provides stateful packet inspection for iptables. It includes the userspace daemon conntrackd and the commandline interface conntrack.
The MiniUPnP project is a library and a daemon. The library is aimed to enable applications to use the capabilities of a UPnP Internet Gateway Device present on the network to forward ports. The daemon adds the UPnP Internet Gateway Device functionality to a NAT gateway running OpenBSD/NetBSD/FreeBSD/Solaris with PF/IPF or Linux 2.4.x/2.6.x with netfilter. One of its most interesting features is to enforce some permissions to allow or deny redirections, bringing some security to UPnP. Newer versions also support the NAT-PMP protocol from Apple.
iptables is built on top of netfilter, the packet alteration framework for Linux 2.4.x and 2.6.x. It is a major rewrite of its predecessor ipchains, and is used to control packet filtering, Network Address Translation (masquerading, portforwarding, transparent proxying), and special effects such as packet mangling.