iloog is a Gentoo-based live CD targeted mainly at students and scientists. It features UnionFS filesystem support that enables you to write everywhere on the LiveCD and install extra packages, a graphical X environment through the Fluxbox window manager, many programming editors and IDEs, and a plethora of scientific applications, including Octave, Namd, Merlin, and full (La)TeX support.
Finnix is a small, self-contained, bootable Linux CD distribution ("LiveCD") for system administrators, based on Debian testing. You can use it to mount and manipulate hard drives and partitions, monitor networks, rebuild boot records, install other operating systems, and much more.
GRUB for DOS is a rebuild of the GNU GRUB boot manager for DOS, and can be run under real mode DOS. It also has many new features. It can be booted through BOOT.INI of Windows (grldr) and kexec of Linux (grub.exe). It can directly boot NTLDR (WindowsNT/2K/XP), IO.SYS (Windows9x/Me) and KERNEL.SYS (FreeDOS). The disk emulation feature is another enhancement over GNU GRUB, and can be used to run legacy DOS/Windows9x systems with floppy or hard disk images.
makebootfat is a tool to make bootable USB disks. It can autodetect, partition, format, and populate the USB disk in a single step without any user interaction. It can also create disk images which are simultaneously compatible with all the three USB booting standards: USB-FDD, USB-HDD, and USB-ZIP.
Kerrighed is a Single System Image operating system (SSI) for clusters. It offers the view of a unique SMP machine on top of a cluster of standard PCs. The goals are high performance of applications, high availability of the cluster, efficient resource management, high customizability of the operating system, and ease of use. It is implemented as an extension to Linux operating system (a set of Linux modules and a small patch to the kernel).
INSERT (the Inside Security Rescue Toolkit) aims to be a multi-functional, multi-purpose disaster recovery and network analysis system. It boots from a credit card-sized CD-ROM and is basically a stripped-down version of Knoppix. It features good hardware detection, fluxbox, emelfm, links-hacked, ssh, tcpdump, nmap, chntpwd, and much more. It provides full read-write support for NTFS partitions (using ntfs-3g), and the ClamAV virus scanner (including a fairly recent signature database and a GUI). It provides partition handling with gParted and also has a network boot facility.