Lessfs is a high performance inline data deduplicating file system for Linux. Lessfs complies to the POSIX standard and is very useful for backup purposes as well as providing storage for virtual machine images. Although lessfs is a file system that is implemented in user space with FUSE, it offers decent performance. Lessfs is capable of handling data rates up to 350MB/sec. It supports filesystem encryption.
fsprotect is a set of scripts that combine tmpfs and aufs to make existing filesystems immutable. After the filesystems are protected, everything that is written will be lost when the computer powers off. It is a great tool for testing and for public computers like those in schools, libraries, etc. It is also very easy to use. It is currently available only for Debian-based systems.
FSter is a virtual filesystem implementation based on FUSE and exploiting Tracker's indexer to allow access to files according to the metadata with which they’re associated. Its behavior is highly customizable with XML configuration to describe in detail the desired hierarchy of files.
Deduplicator is a simple and efficient data deduplicator that works by hard linking files that have the same content. It is ideal for reducing the size of backups. It can save and restore intermediate results, so you can run it in a few short intervals, and allows you to review changes before they are committed to disk.