"Ball", the Byzantine Askemos Language Layer, is an intrusion resistant and incorruptible, autonomous distributed operating system. It provides application programmers with continuations, messages, and rights management on top of a peer-to-peer network resisting byzantine failures of network nodes. The API significantly raises the level of abstraction in comparison with other operating systems: there are very few system calls, and these are expressed in XML. An alternative understanding of Askemos is that of an XML object database with stored procedures.
Apache Cocoon is a Web development framework built around the concepts of separation of concerns and component-based Web development. Cocoon implements these concepts around the notion of "component pipelines", each component on the pipeline specializing on a particular operation. This makes it possible to use a Lego(tm)-like approach in building Web solutions, hooking together components into pipelines without any required programming.
FreeMarker is a template engine that was originally designed so that servlet-based applications could keep graphical design separate from application logic. The templates provide an easy and highly flexible way to generate any kind of text output (HTML, PostScript, TeX, source code, etc.) from a variety of data sources such as Java objects, Jython objects, XML object models, and more.
The Guava tools are a set of Perl scripts for HTML pre-processing. You can create multi-page documents with contents tables, or use templates to give a consistent look to a set of pages. All output is passed through the C preprocessor, so you can use directives such as #include, #define and #if. There are also built-in macros for producing dates, cross references, etc.
HTML::Mason is a full-featured web site development and delivery system. Mason allows web pages and sites to be constructed from shared, reusable building blocks called components. Components contain a mix of Perl and HTML, and can call each other and pass values back and forth like subroutines. Components increase modularity and eliminate repetitive work. HTML::Mason is most powerful when used in conjunction with mod_perl, but can be used in standalone applications as well.
mod_mocrify provides a handler to remove unnecessary whitespace from HTML pages before they are transmitted. It also is capable of making your HTML source virtually unreadable to human eyes by replacing all displayed characters with their ASCII code entity representation. All these modifications do not affect the layout in any way.