CryptSharp provides a number of password crypt algorithms: BCrypt, MD5 (and Apache's htpasswd variant), PHPass (WordPress, phpBB, Drupal), SHA256, SHA512, and Traditional and Extended DES. It also includes Blowfish, SCrypt, and PBKDF2 for any HMAC (.NET's built-in PBKDF2 implementation supports only SHA-1). If you are looking to store passwords, odds are CryptSharp will have the algorithm you want.
jEncrypt is a commandline file encryption archiver. Files are encrypted with the AES-CTR mode, which was recommended by the National Institute of Standards and Technology in 2001 (NIST SP 800-38A). AES-CTR mode only provides confidentiality. It requires a message authentication code such as CBC-MAC to ensure an encrypted message is not accidentally modified or maliciously tampered with, which jEncrypt currently does not provide.
Multiple Eyepairs Only is a project to define a file format and to provide tools to use cryptography for things like four-eyes principles. The key idea is this: if information should only be accessible to a group of people together, with the additional possibility to have some redundancy in participants, then MEO is for you.
Wisecracker is a high performance distributed cryptanalysis framework that leverages GPUs and multiple CPUs. It allows security researchers to write their own cryptanalysis tools that can distribute brute-force cryptanalysis work across multiple systems with multiple multi-core processors and GPUs. Security researchers can also use the sample tools provided out-of-the-box. The differentiating aspect of Wisecracker is that it uses OpenCL and MPI together to distribute the work across multiple systems, each having multiple CPUs and/or GPUs.
LibRCrypt is an Objective C library for complex data encryption based on Rubik's Cubes. The idea's pretty simple: If you represent data as the squares on a Rubik's Cube, you can apply transformations to the data and get back encrypted data, all of which is commutatitive. Just as a Rubik's Cube can be solved if you know all of the moves, this data can be "unwound", so to speak, if you know all of the transforms applied, but the encryption is even deeper than that. A cube can only cover (9 squares per face x 6 faces) 54 significant bits of data. Therefore, compressed data must be composed of multiple (even thousands) of Rubik's Cubes.