CryptSharp provides a number of password crypt algorithms: BCrypt, MD5 (and Apache's htpasswd variant), PHPass (WordPress, phpBB, Drupal), SHA256, SHA512, and Traditional and Extended DES. It also includes Blowfish, SCrypt, and PBKDF2 for any HMAC (.NET's built-in PBKDF2 implementation supports only SHA-1). If you are looking to store passwords, odds are CryptSharp will have the algorithm you want.
GnuTLS is a secure communications library implementing the SSL, TLS, and DTLS protocols and technologies around them. It provides a simple C language application programming interface (API) to access the secure communications protocols, as well as APIs to parse and write X.509, PKCS #12, OpenPGP, and other required structures. It is intended to be portable and efficient with a focus on security and interoperability.
Botan is a crypto library written in C++. It provides a variety of cryptographic algorithms, including common ones such as AES, MD5, SHA, HMAC, RSA, Diffie-Hellman, DSA, and ECDSA, as well as many others that are more obscure or specialized. It also offers SSL/TLS (client and server), X.509v3 certificates and CRLs, and PKCS #10 certificate requests. A message processing system that uses a filter/pipeline metaphor allows for many common cryptographic tasks to be completed with just a few lines of code. Assembly and SIMD optimizations for common CPUs offers speedups for critical algorithms like AES and SHA-1.
The Legion of the Bouncy Castle Java Cryptography API provides a lightweight cryptography API in Java, a provider for the JCE and JCA, a clean-room implementation of the JCE 1.2.1, generators for Version 1 and Version 3 X.509 certificates, generators for Version 2 X.509 attribute certificates, PKCS12 support, and APIs for dealing with S/MIME, CMS, OCSP, TSP, CMP, CRMF, EAC, OpenPGP, and TLS. Versions are provided for the J2ME, and JDK 1.0-1.7.
The OpenSSL Project is a collaborative effort to develop a robust, commercial-grade, fully featured, and Open Source toolkit implementing the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL v2/v3) and Transport Layer Security (TLS v1) as well as a full-strength general-purpose cryptography library.
MatrixSSL is an embedded SSL and TLS implementation designed for small footprint devices and applications requiring low overhead per connection. The library is less than 50K on disk with cipher suites. It includes SSL and TLS client and server support, session resumption, and implementations of RSA, AES, 3DES, ARC4, SHA1, and MD5. The source is well documented and contains portability layers for additional operating systems, cipher suites, and cryptography providers.
CyaSSL is a C-language-based SSL library targeted for embedded and RTOS environments, primarily because of its small size and speed. CyaSSL supports the industry standards up to the current TLS 1.2 level, is up to 20 times smaller than OpenSSL, includes SSL client libraries and an SSL server implementation, includes an OpenSSL compatibility layer, and offers several progressive ciphers such as RABBIT and HC-128. Dual licensed under both the GPLv2 and standard commercial licensing, it caters to a wide range of projects.
GNUnet is a peer-to-peer framework with focus on providing security. All peer-to-peer messages in the network are confidential and authenticated. The framework provides a transport abstraction layer and can currently encapsulate the network traffic in UDP, TCP, HTTP, HTTPS, or direct 802.11 (WLAN). GNUnet supports accounting to provide contributing nodes with better service. The services built on top of the framework include anonymous file sharing and a virtual network providing IPv4-IPv6 transition via protocol translation over the P2P network.