bzip2 is a portable, lossless data compressor based on the Burrows-Wheeler transform. It achieves good compression and runs on practically every (32/64-bit) platform in the known universe. The compression engine is also available as a library (libbz2), should you desire a programmatic interface.
fistgen is the FiST language code generator, used to create stackable file systems out of templates and a high-level language. This package comes with stackable file system templates for Linux, Solaris, and FreeBSD. It also contains several sample file systems built using the FiST language: an encryption file system, a compression file system, and more - all of which are written as portable stackable file systems.
makeself is a small shell script that generates a self-extractable compressed TAR archive from a directory. The resulting file appears as a shell script, and can be launched as is. The archive will then uncompress itself to a temporary directory and an arbitrary command will be executed (for example, an installation script). This is pretty similar to archives generated with WinZip Self-Extractor in the Windows world.
Pysync has both a demonstration implementation of the rsync and related algorithms in pure Python, and a high speed librsync Python extension. The pure Python is not fast and is not optimized, however it does work and provides a simple implementation of the algorithm for reference and experimentation. It includes a combination of ideas taken from librsync, xdelta, and rsync. The librsync Python extension is less flexible and harder to understand, but is very fast.