Theano is a Python library that allows you to define, optimize, and evaluate mathematical expressions involving multi-dimensional arrays efficiently. Theano features tight integration with numpy, transparent use of a GPU, efficient symbolic differentiation, speed and stability optimizations, dynamic C code generation, and extensive unit-testing and self-verification. Theano has been powering large-scale computationally intensive scientific investigations since 2007. But it is also approachable enough to be used in the classroom (IFT6266 at the University of Montreal).
Botan is a crypto library written in C++. It provides a variety of cryptographic algorithms, including common ones such as AES, MD5, SHA, HMAC, RSA, Diffie-Hellman, DSA, and ECDSA, as well as many others that are more obscure or specialized. It also offers SSL/TLS (client and server), X.509v3 certificates and CRLs, and PKCS #10 certificate requests. A message processing system that uses a filter/pipeline metaphor allows for many common cryptographic tasks to be completed with just a few lines of code. Assembly and SIMD optimizations for common CPUs offers speedups for critical algorithms like AES and SHA-1.
Evolving Games for Unnatural Intelligence is a Java package for unsupervised machine learning based on Evolutionary Game Theory on directed graphs. It is able to segment data without any previuos information on the number of segments. It has no GUI, but implements generalizations of the original method proposed by Li, Chen, He and Jiang in the arxiv paper "A Novel Clustering Algorithm Based Upon Games on Evolving Network", published on 30 Dec 2008.
ODE is a high performance library for simulating rigid body dynamics. It is fully featured, stable, mature, and platform independent with an easy-to-use C/C++ API. It has advanced joint types and integrated collision detection with friction. ODE is useful for simulating vehicles, objects in virtual reality environments, and virtual creatures. It is currently used in many computer games, 3D authoring tools, and simulation tools.
Chebfun is a collection of algorithms and a software system in object-oriented MATLAB that extends familiar powerful methods of numerical computation involving numbers to continuous or piecewise-continuous functions. It also implements continuous analogues of linear algebra notions like the QR decomposition and the SVD, and solves ordinary differential equations. The mathematical basis of the system combines tools of Chebyshev expansions, fast Fourier transform, barycentric interpolation, recursive zerofinding, and automatic differentiation.
FLENS is short for Flexible Library for Efficient Numerical Solutions. This C++ can be used as a builing block for the implementation of other (higher-level) numerical libraries or numerical applications. It is a C++ library (requires a C++11 conform compiler). Easy install, as FLENS is headers only. It gives you Matrix/vector types for dense linear algebra; a generic (i.e. templated) implementation of BLAS; and a generic reimplementation of LAPACK. If high performance BLAS libraries like ATLAS, GotoBLAS, etc. are available, you simply can link against them and boost performance.
LAPACK is a linear algebra library, based on LINPACK and EISPACK, designed to provide routines for handling simultaneous equations and matrix algebra efficiently, particularly on shared memory vector processors, parallel processors, and clusters. The code is written in Fortran, and requires the BLAS (Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms) library.