pgl4rbl implements a Postfix policy server that mixes two widely used techniques: greylisting and RBL (DNS blacklists). The idea is that greylisting is applied only to SMTP clients that match a RBL; this means that normal clients are not delayed (such as with a normal greylisting implementation), and RBL false positives do not cause problems (like when outright blocking them at the SMTP level).
Synspam uses Netfilter NFQUEUE to catch the source IP address of any machine connecting to your mail server, running multiple tests against it (RBL check, regexp on the reverse name, etc.) before forwarding the connection to the MTA. In order to have as few false positives as possible, a scoring system is used. If the source IP address is believed to be a spammer IP address, the connection can be dropped. There is a dry run mode if you just want to test it, which is the default.