Compare FreeNet to the current WWW architecture. As information on a Web server becomes more popular, it becomes more difficult for users to access. Witness the impressive "Slashdot effect" which occurs when thousands of users suddenly overwhelm a Web server. The Slashdot effect is caused by the centralization of information. When information is centrally located, this location becomes a single point of failure for the distribution of that information. The irony of the Slashdot effect is that it is caused by users making thousands of copies of the relevant information. It's not as if the information has become scarce -- quite the opposite. Users ought to be able to share that information with each other, decentralizing it. [Editor's note: In fact, this already happens. What do you see almost immediately in the comments to a story that links to a movie trailer or the photos of Hemos's wedding? "Here's a mirror" and "Here's another". Making this more efficient by turning it into part of the system would actually just be the next step in an already-established practice.]
I propose that FreeNet be integrated into the Mozilla cache structure, allowing users to form a sort of "browsers' cooperative" in which pages are freely shared in a giant collective caching structure. (Of course, this should not be limited just to the Mozilla browser, but I think it's a good starting point.)
I have given the structure of this cooperative some thought, and I want to give an overview of how I think the system should work. First comes a technical overview, which details the relatively simple integration work that needs to be done. Second, I will give a more abstract view of how I think the social structure of such a cooperative ought to be formed. I have dubbed this system the World Free Web (or WFW, not to be confused with the WWF or WCW).
When a user makes a request for a page using this new enhanced WFW browser, three things would happen simultaneously:
Now, whichever of these methods returns a valid result first is displayed to the user. The user need not have any knowledge of which method was used, although if they get outdated or garbage data, they can always hit "shift reload" which should force the browser to use method #1 to re-fetch the data. This is similar to the way many proxy servers work today. Behind the scenes, as each page is inserted into the browser cache, it is also inserted into the local FreeNet node. The entire process is transparent to the end user.
In the course of normal operation, this whole scheme will behave in a very similar way to normal Web browsing. There are really only two cases in which the FreeNet node would provide a page faster than the HTTP request:
Philosophically, this scheme has one primary benefit: Each user of the Web, even a non-techie type, becomes a contributor to the network infrastructure instead of simply a drain on resources. This is much like the old days of Usenet, when each person shared her news feed with others. More on this below.
Practically, there are many more extended benefits. For instance, one of the problems with distributed systems such as FreeNet is the lack of feedback or ratings on the quality of the information. The WFW can automatically provide reliable feedback on the validity of information. If a user hits the "super reload" button after getting a page from FreeNet, this page is likely to be of suspect quality (it is either a bogus result or out-of-date). Large Web sites will no longer have a monopoly on the ability to handle a large number of users. This is just an example of the kinds of things users can do when they band together.
But it gets better. Once this starts to catch on, proxy servers and Web servers can be adapted to start participating in the system. Imagine a new HTTP response code that indicates that the server is too busy to handle your request right now, but that the data you want was just inserted into FreeNet with a given key. Small sites get to leverage the bandwidth and storage of their users to reduce costs.
FreeNet itself benefits in a number of ways. Since many more people are using FreeNet just by using their browsers, the amount of information and overall storage capacity in FreeNet is increased by several orders of magnitude. All the virtues of FreeNet's design become stronger as the number of users increases. Having more nodes increases the overall resilience of the network to attack, and having nodes run transparently by "normal" users makes it harder to accuse FreeNet users of engaging in suspicious activity.
In order to be successful, I believe the WFW should work as a true grassroots user movement. In order to support this, the WFW will have to add slightly to the underlying FreeNet protocol. However, a few things should be noted. First, WFW nodes could still act as normal FreeNet nodes, performing all the operations that the typical FreeNet node would. The rules I am about to outline would only apply to WFW nodes talking to other WFW nodes, and need not apply when they are talking to normal FreeNet nodes.
First of all, one of the big problems with FreeNet as it currently stands is the bootstrapping process of finding out about other FreeNet nodes. Currently, FreeNet maintains an optional central repository of nodes which is available via the Web. This is not a great long-term solution, as it reintroduces centralization into a system that should be fully distributed. My proposal is that the WFW be a closed "club" structure. In order to join, you have to get an existing member to sponsor you. In many cases, this member could just be your ISP, but it does not need to be.
Each WFW node could have an ACL that keeps track of other nodes that the current node is willing to accept requests from. When a node is introduced into the system via a sponsorship, at first this node will only be allowed to make requests via the sponsoring node. The node will also handle requests through its parent node, but as it fulfills these requests (and hence, becomes more and more useful to the rest of the network), other nodes will start to accept direct connections from it. This produces the proper incentives to marginalize the effects of spammers. If you are going to sponsor people, your node will be the primary victim of any malicious activity they engage in, and you will be able to cut off their access if they do engage in such behavior. Only after a node has proved its utility to the rest of the network will it gradually be brought closer to the strongly-connected center, and if it starts to change its behavior, it will gradually be pushed out towards the periphery.
Clearly, there is much more work to be done. The WFW is a first step towards accomplishing a more intelligent mainstream net architecture which recognizes that information cannot and should not be controlled by an elite few. But this is just an outline, a sketch of what's coming. I am hoping to get people involved in a development effort -- a few from the FreeNet team, a few from the Mozilla team at first -- but then there's plenty more work to be done. If this is to succeed, it will have to be a community effort. Consider this your official invitation. If you'd like to get involved, the project has a home at http://enzyme.sourceforge.net/WFW/.
While you're thinking about these issues, you might want to check out Professor David Gelernter's latest manifesto, The Second Coming.
Eric Ries (eries@CatalystRecruiting.com) is working on a BS in Computer Science and a BA in Philosophy at Yale University. He is currently CTO of the Internet startup company Catalyst Recruiting (http://www.CatalystRecruiting.com/) and its cousin, the Enzyme open-source project (http://enzyme.sourceforge.net/). His previous work experience ranges from Microsoft to the San Diego Supercomputer Center. He has been published on Java and other topics in both books and magazines. He was co-author of The Black Art of Java Game Programming, among others, and was the Games & Graphics editor for the Java Developer's Journal. His complete resume is available at http://i.am/EricRies/.
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